Serbia ( Serbian: Србија/Srbija ) , officially the Republic of Serbia , is a sovereign state situated at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, covering the southern part of the Pannonian Plain and the central Balkans.
It has a population of approximately 7,041,599 inhabitants as of 2016, Serbia has a total area of 77,474 square kilometers (29,913 square miles).
Relative to its small territory, it is a diverse country distinguished by a transitional character, situated along cultural, geographic, climatic and other boundaries. Serbia is landlocked and borders Hungary to the north; Romania and Bulgaria to the east; Macedonia to the south; and Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro to the southwest; it also claims a border with Albania through the disputed territory of Kosovo. Serbia numbers around 7 million residents, and its capital, Belgrade, ranks among the largest cities in Southeast Europe.
Serbia is a member of numerous organizations such as the UN, CoE, OSCE, PfP, BSEC, and CEFTA. An EU membership candidate since 2012, Serbia has been negotiating its EU accession since January 2014. The country is acceding to the WTO and is a militarily neutral state. Serbia is an upper-middle income economy with dominant service sector, followed by the industrial sector and agriculture. The country ranks high in Social Progress Index (47th) as well as Global Peace Index (48th), relatively high in Human Development Index (66th), and is an economically moderately free country and world’s 41st most complex economy according to the Economic Complexity Index (ECI).
Almost all of Serbia’s rivers drain to the Black Sea, by way of the Danube river. The Danube, the second largest European river, passes through Serbia with 588 kilometers (21% of its overall length) and represents the largest source of fresh water.
With 29.1% of its territory covered by forest, Serbia is considered to be a middle-forested country, compared on a global scale to world forest coverage at 30%, and European average of 35%. The total forest area in Serbia is 2,252,000 hа (1,194,000 hа or 53% are state-owned, and 1,058,387 hа or 47% are privately owned) or 0.3 ha per inhabitant. The most common trees are oak, beech, pines and firs.
The Constitution of Serbia defines it as a secular state with guaranteed religious freedom. Orthodox Christians with 6,079,396 comprise 84.5% of country’s population. The Serbian Orthodox Church is the largest and traditional church of the country, adherents of which are overwhelmingly Serbs. Other Orthodox Christian communities in Serbia include Montenegrins, Romanians, Vlachs, Macedonians and Bulgarians.
Roman Catholics number 356,957 in Serbia, or roughly 6% of the population, mostly in Vojvodina (especially its northern part) which is home to minority ethnic groups.
The official language is Serbian, a standardized form of Serbo-Croatian, native to 88% of the population. Serbian is the only European language with active digraphia, using both Cyrillic and Latin alphabets.
Serbia has an emerging market economy in upper-middle income range. Automotive industry (with FIAT as a forebearer) is dominated by cluster located in Kragujevac and its vicinity, and contributes to export with about $2 billion.
Serbia’s mining industry is comparatively strong: Serbia is the 18th largest producer of coal (7th in the Europe), it is also world’s 23rd largest (3rd in Europe).
Food industry is well known both regionally and internationally and is one of the strong points of the economy. Some of the international brand-names established production in Serbia: PepsiCo and Nestlé in food-processing sector, while Coca-Cola (Belgrade), Heineken (Novi Sad) and Carlsberg (Bačka Palanka) in beverage industry .
Serbia is not a mass-tourism destination but nevertheless has a diverse range of touristic products. In 2015, total of over 2.4 million tourists were recorded in accommodations, of which some 1.1 million were foreign. Foreign exchange earnings from tourism were estimated at $1.14 billion. Tourism is mainly focused on the mountains and spas of the country, which are mostly visited by domestic tourists, as well as Belgrade which is preferred choice of foreign tourists
According to 2011 census, literacy in Serbia stands at 98% of population while computer literacy is at 49% (complete computer literacy is at 34.2%).
Also the Serbian music is one of the most recognized and known in the world , as well as the sport , in which Novak Djokovic has been ranked on the first place in ATP list in the world for a long time( 223 weeks ).